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Water Ice at Low Latitudes on Mars

MRO took these images of a fresh, 6 meter wide (20 foot wide) crater on Mars on Oct. 18, 2008, (left) and on Jan. 14, 2009. Credit: NASA/JPL Caltech/University of Arizona

Images of recent impact craters taken by the HiRISE Camera on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter have revealed sub surface water ice halfway between the north pole and the equator on Mars. While the Phoenix lander imaged subsurface ice where the top layer of soil had been disturbed at the landing site near the north pole, these new images taken in quick succession, detecting how the ice sublimated away are the first to show evidence of water ice at much lower latitudes. Surprisingly, the white ice may be made from 99 percent pure water.

knew there was ice below the surface at high latitudes of Mars, but we find that it extends far closer to the equator than you would think, based on Mars climate today, said Shane Byrne of the University of Arizona, a member of the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment, or HiRISE camera.

other surprising discovery is that ice exposed at the bottom of these meteorite impact craters is so pure, Byrne said. thinking before was that ice accumulates below the surface between soil grains, so there would be a 50 50 mix of dirt and ice. We were able to figure out, given how long it took that ice to fade from view, that the mixture is about one percent dirt and Equipoise Racehorse 99 percent ice. used several instruments on MRO to take a series of images, detecting and confirming highly pure, bright ice exposed in new craters, ranging from 1.5 feet to 8 feet deep, at five different Martian sites.

Earlier and later HiRISE images of a fresh meteorite crater 12 meters, or 40 feet, across located within Arcadia Planitia on Mars show how water ice excavated at the crater faded with time. The images, each 35 meters, or 115 feet across, were taken in November 2008 and January 2009. Credit: NASA/JPL Caltech/University of Arizona

The images here were taken of the Arcadia Planitia region, located northwest of the Tharsis region in the northern lowlands, at 40 60 North and 150 180 West. The before and after HiRISE images show a fresh meteorite crater 12 meters, or 40 feet, and reveal how water ice excavated at the crater faded with time. The images, each 35 meters, or 115 feet across, were taken in November 2008 and January 2009.

The discovery of these impact craters began in August 2008, the orbiter Context camera team examined their images for any dark spots or other changes that weren visible in earlier images of the same area. Meteorites usually leave dark marks when they crash into dust covered Mars terrain.

The HiRISE team followed up in September 2008 by taking high resolution images of the dark spots.

saw something very unusual when we followed up on the first of these impact craters, Byrne said, that was this bright blue material poking up from the bottom of the crater. It looked a lot like water ice. And sure enough, when we started monitoring this material, it faded away like you expect water ice to fade, because water ice is unstable on Mars surface and "buy cheap jintropin online" turns directly into water vapor in the atmosphere. few days later in September 2008, the orbiter team used their Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars and got the spectral signature of water ice exposed in one of the impact craters, further clinching the discovery.

The HiRISE camera on NASA''s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter took this image of a new, 8 meter (26 foot) diameter meteorite impact crater in the topographically flat, dark plains within Vastitas Borealis, Mars, on November 1, 2008. The crater was made sometime after Jan. 26, 2008. Bright water ice was excavated by, and now surrounds, the crater. This entire image is 50 meters (164 feet) across. Credit: NASA/JPL Caltech/University of Arizona

of this had to happen very quickly because 200 days after we first saw the ice, it was gone, it was the color of dirt, Byrne said. we had taken HiRISE images just a few months later, we wouldn have noticed anything unusual. This discovery would have just passed us by. far water ice extends toward the equator depends largely on how much water has been available in the Martian atmosphere in the recent past, Byrne said: ice is a relic of a more humid climate not very long ago, perhaps just several thousand years ago.

This map shows five locations where fresh impact cratering has excavated water ice from just beneath the surface of Mars (sites 1 through 5) and the Viking Lander 2 landing site (VL2), in the context of color coding to indicate estimated depth to ice. Image Credit: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona

While Phoenix discovery of sub surface ice was not totally unexpected, finding highly pure ice far closer to the equator because of random meteor impacts was unexpected, he said.

There are several theories about how a layer of such pure ice could have formed beneath Mars surface. Byrne said he thinks that one of the most promising ideas is that this ice on Mars formed in the same way that pure "Buy Cheap Jintropin Online" ice lenses form beneath the surface of the Earth.

where you have very thin films of liquid water around ice grains and soil grains and they migrate around to form clear ice lenses on top of the ice table, even at temperatures well below zero. This process is called heave on Earth, and "Buy Cheap Jintropin Online" it considered a nuisance in most places because it cracks up roads and tilts walls and destroys foundations of houses.

on Mars it would be of great interest if we could discover a process that involved liquid water in today climate, and not just in some of the warmest areas of the planet but in some of the coldest areas of the planet in the high latitude regions, Byrne said.

OK, someone has to say it. This, and particularly the following quote:

ice is a relic of a more humid climate not very long ago, perhaps just several thousand years ago. HUGE news. A more humid climate means the presence of a full water cycle on Mars, which exists today (hence the clouds of water ice that are occasionally seen), but would have to be much more intense. It also means higher global temperatures, a thicker atmosphere and maybe even superficial liquid flows, even if very limited in size and extension. And all very recently.

tacit Chill, man. I didn necessarily imply that a gap in knowledge was created by anyone specific, or intentionally. (But now that you mention it, it is an interesting thought). But 50 years ago scientists cherished every photon of sunlight that bounced off Mars and came to Earth. They deduced surface temperature, identified spectroscopic evidence of organics, and observed detailed seasonal changes. Then came Viking, and Mars was forgotten as a dead, frozen CO2 covered wasteland. Now we are finally getting back to science the discovery of life, that scientists like Slipher spent their entire lives studying Mars for, is finally within reach. Life off the Earth the greatest discovery in the history of science seems imminent. This is a great time.

50 years ago scientists cherished every photon of sunlight that bounced off Mars and came to Earth. They deduced surface temperature, identified spectroscopic evidence of organics, and observed detailed seasonal changes. Then came Viking, and Mars was forgotten as a dead, frozen CO2 covered wasteland. Now we are finally getting back to science. a lot of nonsense.

Almost everything that people thought, Slipher included, about Mars 60 years ago was utterly wrong.

Viking showed us more of the true Mars than everything discvovered in the past 500 years put together.

Viking (and Mariner 9 before it) showed evidence for subsurface water ice. What HiRISE is doing is confirming conclusions amde of Viking data.

I believe the water found on the moon did not originate on the moon, nor did it come from earth. I believe it came from meteorites and comets that have impacted the moon millions of years ago. This is the only possible reason for the small amounts found around impact sites. The earth also gained it quantities of ice from the same form of impacts. The reason the ice still remains is due to the deep cold of not having an atmosphere. In my personal opinion I believe many moons have the same icy deposits around impact sites. Larsson spectroscopic observations of organics I was thinking of were the the bands discussed in several articles in Science back in the day. None of the alternative explanations which exclude organics have been sustained. Also, back in the day (1969) , was a spectroscopic report of methane by Mariner 7, the discoverers were Pimentel and Herr. they withdrew their claim one month later. Did you ever read his 1964 book? What don you like the meticulous observations of martian clouds, including the W cloud that we now know forms near the summits of the high volcanoes on Mars? The observations and photos of seasonal color/shade change, which to this day have not been filmed Primobolan Xbs in any meaningful way? The observations of fine linear features years before HiRise produced images we know call (Latin for The discovery of Mariner Valley years before Mariner got there? The clearing events which have still been Comprar Levitra explaind only by conjecture? The observations of the ring of color surrounding the receding pole, which are undoubtedly the first observatons of what scientists claim now are erupting pockets of CO2. But you can chill, too, because nobody cares at all. Everyone is so brainwashed that an alien could walk down Broadway and the only people who noticed would be called whacky. Congratulations.

Now when I google them, I happen on a 1999 conference, that discuss Mesterolone 25 Mg a remaining unexplained 3.4 region. It was mentioned since the NASA IRTF telescope found similar bands in 1995, originating from Syrtis "Buy Cheap Jintropin Online" Major. This is, of course, one of the locations for later finds of methane.

But it is a very small signal of 10 % relative absorption. I dunno about Sinton observations, as the methane release isn correlated with season, happens rarely and have a surprisingly fast removal rate. (And of course, as methanogens seems to be the very latest metabolism evolved on Earth, making it an unlikely development.)